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Tuesday, January 8, 2008

Scientists discovery, the annual migration of eastern North American monarch butterflies


Scientists discover molecular basis of monarch butterfly migration

Since its discovery, the annual migration of eastern North American monarch butterflies has captivated the human imagination and spirit. That millions of butterflies annually fly a few thousand miles to reach a cluster of pine groves in central Mexico comprising just 70 square miles is, for many, an awesome and mysterious occurrence. However, over the past two decades, scientists have begun to unveil the journey for what it is: a spectacular result of biology, driven by an intricate molecular mechanism in a tiny cluster of cells in the butterfly brain.
University of Massachusetts Medical School Professor and Chair of Neurobiology Steven M. Reppert, MD, has been a pioneering force in the effort to demystify the migration of the monarch. His previous research has demonstrated that the butterflies use a time-compensated sun compass and daylight cues to help them navigate to the pine groves. His studies have shown that time compensation is provided by the butterfly's circadian clock, which allows the monarch to continually correct its flight direction to maintain a fixed flight bearing even as the sun moves across the sky.

Now, in two papers that will be published this week in two journals of the open-access publisher Public Library of Science (PLoS), Dr. Reppert and colleagues describe in detail the monarch butterfly circadian clock for the first time, and identify and characterize an entirely new clock gene that provides insight into not only the biology of the butterfly and its migration, but also the evolution of circadian clocks in general.

In "Cryptochromes Define a Novel Circadian Clock Mechanism in Monarch Butterflies That May Underlie Sun Compass Navigation," published in PLoS Biology, Reppert and colleagues reveal that the circadian clock of the monarch uses a novel molecular mechanism, heretofore not found in any other insect or mammal.

By studying the clock in two other organisms-the fruit fly and the mouse-scientists thought that they had very good models for an understanding of the insect clock and the mammalian clock, respectively. Through these studies, scientists had described a clock mechanism that is essentially a loop where proteins are made and destroyed over a cycle that takes approximately 24 hours to complete. Further, investigators identified those factors that work together to drive this process.

Reppert and colleagues were particularly interested in one of these factors: CRY, a cryptochrome protein that was initially discovered in plants and was subsequently found in the fly and the mouse. In the fly, CRY functions as a blue light photoreceptor, allowing light access to clock-containing cells. This enables the resetting of the clock by the light-dark cycle. In the mouse, CRY does not function to absorb light; rather, it is one of the essential components that power the central clockwork enabling the feedback loop to continue. (In the mouse, light enters the clock through the animal's eyes.)

Given the function of CRY in flies and the role of light in migration, scientists presumed that the monarch's clock would resemble that of the fly. Reppert and his collaborators were stunned and elated to find that the clock of the butterfly was as spectacular as its migration. Genetic studies revealed that the monarch had not only the fly-like CRY, but also another cryptochrome that further tests identified as a new clock molecule in the butterfly. Surprisingly, this cryptochrome, dubbed CRY2, is more similar in structure to vertebrate CRY than to that of the fruit fly.

Notably, the scientists also found that the core components of the monarch clock resembled those of the mammalian clock. As in the mouse, CRY2 functions in the butterfly to maintain the feedback loop, while CRY1 still allows light to access the cells, as in the fly.

"This is a very interesting realignment of how one thinks about insect clock models. There was no reason to suspect that the butterfly clock would be different from that of Drosophila. That it is different has already told us something about how circadian clocks have evolved," explained Reppert. "What we have in the butterfly is an astounding clock mechanism, one that is more similar to our own circadian clock and less similar to the clock of the fly! The presence and function of two distinct CRYs suggest that the monarch's is an ancestral clock; a clock that, over the course of evolution, has changed differently in other insects and mammals."
Reppert and colleagues not only discovered the function of CRY2 in the monarch clock, but they also found that CRY2 may function to mark a critical neural pathway from the circadian clock to the sun compass. This clock-to-compass pathway provides an essential link between the clock and the sun compass, as both are necessary for successful orientation and navigation. As Reppert explains, "CRY2 appears to have a dual function- as a core clock component and as an output molecule, linking the clock to the compass."

Concurrent with their studies of the monarch clock and relevant to the identification of CRY2, Reppert and colleagues have been working to create a butterfly genomics resource.

In "Chasing Migration Genes: A Brain Expressed Sequence Tag Resource for Summer and Migratory Monarch Butterflies (Danaus plexippus)," published in PLoS ONE, Reppert and his collaborators describe a brain expressed sequence tag (EST) resource, used to identify genes involved in migratory behaviors by comparing the gene expression in the brains of migrating butterflies to those of non-migrating butterflies. They have already identified ~10,000 ESTs that likely represent over 50 percent of the genes that make up the monarch genome. The ESTs, which represent expression units of genes in the butterfly brain, are currently being analyzed and catalogued and Reppert hopes that the genetic information will be of wide use to scientists around the world.

"This information, along with genetic markers identified in the study, will help us distinguish genetic differences between populations or even between butterflies that are migratory and not migratory" Reppert said, adding, "This information sets the stage for the cloning of the butterfly genome."

In fact, Reppert and his fellow investigators recently initiated a collaborative agreement with SymBio Corporation ( Menlo Park, CA to sequence the entire butterfly genome. According to Robert A. Feldman, President and CEO of SymBio, "We are very excited about the prospect of sequencing the monarch genome. The information gained will not only help elucidate the molecular basis of butterfly migration, but will also add substantial knowledge to comparative genomic studies." SymBio specializes in sequencing the genomes of a wide range of organisms, from bacteria to mammals.

Ultimately, the Reppert laboratory will continue to work to understand how the monarch clock "talks" to the sun compass, with a focus on CRY2. The goal of the researchers' studies is to understand the molecular mechanism and anatomical mechanisms for clock-compass interactions that enable migrants to maintain a set flight bearing as the sun moves across the sky during the day.

Dr. Reppert also states, "The monarch provides a fascinating animal model for the study of neurobiology. By understanding more about the way the circadian clock and the sun compass interact to allow the monarch to fulfill its biological destiny, we will gain valuable insights into how the brain functions to incorporate information about time and space, which has relevance far beyond the butterfly."


Migration & Tagging

When will the migration peak in your area? See Peak Migration Dates
Unlike most other insects in temperate climates, Monarch butterflies cannot survive a long cold winter. Instead, they spend the winter in roosting spots. Monarchs west of the Rocky Mountains travel to small groves of trees along the California coast. Those east of the Rocky Mountains fly farther south to the forests high in the mountains of Mexico. The monarch's migration is driven by seasonal changes. Daylength and temperature changes influence the movement of the Monarch.
In all the world, no butterflies migrate like the Monarchs of North America. They travel much farther than all other tropical butterflies, up to three thousand miles. They are the only butterflies to make such a long, two way migration every year. Amazingly, they fly in masses to the same winter roosts, often to the exact same trees. Their migration is more the type we expect from birds or whales. However, unlike birds and whales, individuals only make the round-trip once. It is their children's grandchildren that return south the following fall.

Some other species of Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths) travel long distances, but they generally go in one direction only, often following food. This one-way movement is properly called emigration. In tropical lands, butterflies do migrate back and forth as the seasons change. At the beginning of the dry season, the food plants shrivel and the butterflies leave to find a moister climate. When the rains arrive, the food plants grow back and the butterflies return.

When the late summer and early fall Monarchs emerge from their pupae, or chrysalides, they are biologically and behaviorally different from those emerging in the summer. The shorter days and cooler air of late summer trigger changes. In Minnesota this occurs around the end of August. Even though these butterflies look like summer adults, they won't mate or lay eggs until the following spring. Instead, their small bodies prepare for a strenuous flight. Otherwise solitary animals, they often cluster at night while moving ever southward. If they linger too long, they won't be able to make the journey; because they are cold-blooded, they are unable to fly in cold weather.

Fat, stored in the abdomen, is a critical element of their survival for the winter. This fat not only fuels their flight of one to three thousand miles, but must last until the next spring when they begin the flight back north. As they migrate southwards, Monarchs stop to nectar, and they actually gain weight during the trip! Some researchers think that Monarchs conserve their "fuel" in flight by gliding on air currents as they travel south. This is an area of great interest for researchers; there are many unanswered questions about how these small organisms are able to travel so far.

Another unsolved mystery is how Monarchs find the overwintering sites each year. Somehow they know their way, even though the butterflies returning to Mexico or California each fall are the great-great-grandchildren of the butterflies that left the previous spring. No one knows exactly how their homing system works; it is another of the many unanswered questions in the butterfly world.

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Digital rights management software is designed

Despite Move to MP3s, DRM Will Haunt Record Labels

While record labels' retreat from digital rights management software is designed to give consumers the ability to play songs on any device, music fans will likely be trapped in a DRM-filled world for years to come.

"In the big picture, we're probably 10 years into a 20-year evolutionary process here, from going to the store (and) buying a CD to downloading all music in the MP3 format on your computer," said Christopher Allen, chief operating officer of Napster.

The music industry is in the fledgling stages of an anti-DRM experiment that until recently seemed unlikely. With Apple's iTunes Store dominating the booming market for digital music sales, the Big Four record labels -- Sony BMG, Warner Music Group, Universal Music Group and EMI Music -- are scrambling for fresh ways to peddle their wares, even as they face creative new competitors.

On Monday, for example, Sony BMG announced it will release a mishmash of 37 albums in the unrestricted MP3 format, confirming last week's report that the label would ditch DRM. Under Sony's new plan, consumers would purchase a credit-card-like ticket from Best Buy, Target, Fred's, Winn-Dixie or other outlets. The cards will have a number that must be entered into the MusicPass site, where the full album can be downloaded.

"The MP3 files delivered through MusicPass play on computers, as well as on all MP3 players, including iPods," said Thomas Hesse, a Sony BMG sales president. "This makes them a simple, easy-to-use solution that will appeal to fans who already access their music on the internet, as well as to consumers who are just getting into the digital realm."

Nearly two weeks ago, Warner Music Group, another of the Big Four music concerns, announced it would make its entire selection available on in the MP3 format. That followed other DRM-removal announcements earlier in 2007 from Universal Music Group and EMI, which licensed its catalog to Apple's iTunes Store to sell in the unrestricted MP3 format.

Still, more than 80 percent of the digital music market remains encoded with DRM, despite the announcements from the big labels. That's because of the highly popular iTunes Store, and Apple's iPod and iPhone. Those devices, with more than 100 million units sold, only play music protected by Apple's proprietary FairPlay DRM technology, or music that isn't protected at all. Apple, since 2003, has sold more than 3 billion music downloads, capturing more than 80 percent of the market.

Apple chairman Steve Jobs has repeatedly balked at licensing FairPlay for use on competing download services or devices -- meaning music companies had to choose between using iTunes or going DRM-free if they wanted the songs to play on the all-important iPods. The industry stood by and allowed most of its music-download sales to come from Apple, but that is slowly changing.

Napster, the online music service that nearly a decade ago was synonymous with music piracy, announced Monday it was looking to strike unrestricted licensing arrangements with the Big Four. Right now, the subscription-based service's millions of downloads are not compatible with the iPod, which Warner chief Edgar Bronfman Jr. in September labeled the "default device" in the digital music scene.

"Talks are currently in progress with the labels," said Napster's Allen. He said the company anticipates selling unprotected music from the Big Four sometime in the second quarter.

"The move to MP3s is certainly a step in clearing up some of the dysfunction, and Apple's hermetically sealed proprietary system," Allen said.

Apple, which encodes digital downloads with DRM as a licensing condition, declined comment on whether it would begin removing DRM. The bulk of Apple's songs for sale contain the FairPlay DRM coding.

Yet the removal of DRM dramatically expands the music industry's marketing capabilities. Sony BMG's new campaign would have been impossible had the 37 albums been encoded with DRM. Digital rights management allows downloads to expire, or to be shared and played only a limited number of times or on certain devices.

"Physical products like this will be another way for Best Buy to deliver music and entertainment to our customers in a manner that suits their needs, whether it is an impulse purchase, gift or collectible," said Jennifer Johnston Schaidler, a Best Buy vice president. "Digital music doesn't need to be restricted to online environments."

Sony spokesman John McKay declined to say whether the company would demand that Apple remove its FairPlay technology from Sony's digital downloads. McKay also declined to say why just a few dozen albums -- from big artists such as Alicia Keys, Bob Dylan, Celine Dion and Tony Bennett -- were available in the unrestricted format, or when others would be made available.

Individual Sony BMG songs are not available, he said..

Sony's Idea of DRM-Free Music
"Leave it to Sony to mess up DRM-free music downloads. What is the point of DRM-free tracks if you still have to go to a retail store to buy them? From the Infoworld article: 'The tracks will be offered in MP3 format, without DRM, from Jan. 15 in the U.S. and from late January in Canada... The move is far from the all-digital service offered by its rivals, though. To obtain the Sony-BMG tracks, would-be listeners will first have to go to a retail store to buy a Platinum MusicPass, a card containing a secret code, for a suggested retail price of $12.99. Once they have scratched off the card's covering to expose the code, they will be able to download one of just 37 albums available through the service, including Britney Spears' "Blackout" and Barry Manilow's "The Greatest Songs of the Seventies."'"

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The Spare Design of Wikia Search- latest rival in the search-engine category looks eerily like…well, Google.

(24hoursnews)Technology rival briging more and easy support for users.
Log on to Wikia Search, a new competitor to Google (GOOG), Yahoo! (YHOO), and (IACI), and you'll see a clean, no-frills page with a cartoonish logo and a simple search box. But Wikia Search is not just a Google clone. The new site takes a hybrid approach to search, combining technologies and features from a range of successful Web sites —search-related and non-search, including social-networking phenomenon Facebook. And when you look beyond the home page, Wikia Search's design is just as eclectic. Its open-source design process has produced a site built on proven Web-design standards—and not just those established by Google.
It's the latest project from Wikipedia co-founder Jimmy Wales and his San Mateo (Calif.) company Wikia, fueled by some $14 million from investors that include Amazon (AMZN) and Bessemer Venture Partners. Wikia's long-term plan is to sell ad space on the site, although that business model is not in place yet because the technology and processes for selling and posting ads haven't been determined. Wikia Search, a year in the works, launched on Jan. 7 with a public alpha test after weeks of private pre-alpha testing.
As late as Sunday evening, and even on Monday morning, Wales was engaged in answering e-mail questions from a small group of invited pre-alpha testers who were reporting bugs in the site's design. The glitches included the listing of some highly rated search results below those of less popular ones—a problem that has been fixed, for now. Ironing out other problems will take more time.
Harnessing the Wisdom of Crowds
The design features a wide, blank rectangle beckoning you to type in a search word or phrase. The only text is the site's name and standard links such as "About Us"—and those that hint at the open-source nature of the project, such as "Report a Bug." The only graphic element visible is a cartoonish, smiling cloud, which is as goofy as Google's brightly-colored, ever-playful home page logo.
Despite the obvious similarities to the world's No. 1 search engine, what sets Wikia Search apart is its approach: Wikia Search uses Web-crawling software called Grub (purchased from LookSmart in July, 2007) and Lucene, an open-source search engine, but it adds humans to the search process. This hybrid offers software-powered search similar to Google's blended with the human-driven "social search" exemplified by Yahoo Answers, which lets people post questions and harness the wisdom of the crowd.
The idea is to have a "trust network" of users, รก la Wikipedia to help the software determine how germane sites are to a search. This includes engaging in so-called disambiguation, a term popularized by Wikipedia. As Wikia defines it, disambiguation is the process of distinguishing between words with more than one potential reference, such as George Bush or George W. Bush. Further details of how such intelligence might accommodate voluminous search requests have not been released. But in addition, mini-articles, posted and edited Wikipedia-style, are meant to help visitors to the search engine find quick, additional information on chosen topics.
Hiding Its Uniqueness
Users can engage in online wiki discussions of the search results, emphasizing the community-centric approach to search and further distinguishing it from Google.
So far, hours after the site launched, the mini-articles don't seem too detailed—the entry for Google, for instance, features the company's stock ticker and extremely limited information, such as a list of services and links.
There is also a user rating feature—the same zero- to five-star graphic familiar to Netflix and Amazon users—for the searches. These ratings are fed back into the system and used to refine the search algorithm. Wikia will publish the source code for the search engine, making the tool completely open-source. Yet the design of the site, with its Google-like face, does little to emphasize Wikia's unique approach to search.
"The first thing people are going to think when they see this is, 'So what? Why I should I care, and why would I want to use this instead of Google?' When someone looks at this site, does it give them a reason to expect something different or better than what they're used to?" observes Jesse James Garrett, president and founder of Adaptive Path, a San Francisco user-experience design consultancy, via e-mail.

New Users Vs. Power Users
Wales acknowledges that while it seems he is copying some of Google's design strategies, he is also informed by what's wrong with Wikipedia's text-heavy, busy design.
"At Wikipedia, we let things get too cluttered," Wales admits. "Yes, [the design] is useful for power users" who want to create or add to complex entries with many different offerings, from photos to long timelines and many links. "But it's a tough challenge to figure out how to support power users without overwhelming new users" with such a text-heavy design, he says.
In fact, when you delve into Wikia Search, it's clear the site's design was shaped by more than either Wikipedia's clutter or Google's success. Search results are presented alongside links to a social-networking site on a complex page that looks a lot like Facebook. Wikia Search users who sign up for a free account can even post photos and add friends. Wales hopes such features will attract a regular audience.
If it seems as if the site's design has myriad influences, that might be because it is the result of an open-source process, says Wales. He didn't hire a graphic designer or user-interface consultant. Rather, a Wikia member who lives in Dubai volunteered some mock-up pages, and another in Portland came up with the happy cloud logo.
Up To the Challenge
"The design philosophy is the principle of least astonishment. You should intuitively know what to do when you come to the site," says Wales. "So I took cues from the design standards established by existing sites."
Wales is going head-to-head with the world's top search properties, and he insists Wikia Search is up to the challenge. While it remains to be seen whether the human-powered approach that worked so well for an online encyclopedia can expand to meet the demands of the search world—in November, 2007, Americans conducted 10 billion searches using the top five search engines, according to ComScore data—one thing is clear: The streamlined design of Wikia Search's user interface draws upon the proven approach of using simplicity to attract audiences to an alternative search engine. That, of course, was the strategy Google itself once used to lure people away from Yahoo.

"5 Ultra Mobile Chips Four server processors, and seven desktop products unveiled by Intel

Intel the best hardware making company now with more user and environment friendly.

Along with the five mobile chips, Intel unveiled four server processors, and seven desktop products. All the new processors were built using the same manufacturing process, and are lead and halogen free, making them more environmentally friendly.
The latest processors bring the number of 45-nm products from Intel to 32, including desktop, laptop, and server processors. Intel said it delivers higher power-to-performance ratios by packing more transistors in a chip by shrinking their size to 45 nm. The previous generation chips had 60-nm transistors.
Intel unveiled the new products at the International Consumer Electronics show, where chief executive Paul Otellini is scheduled to give a keynote speech Monday night. Otellini is expected to also introduce Intel's hardware and software partners that have agreed to support Intel's upcoming platform, code-named Menlow, for mobile Internet devices and the smallest of notebooks that trade power for longer battery life.
Intel is scheduled to start production of Menlow, which will include a new low-power 45-nm processor packages codenamed Silverthorne, this quarter, Anand Chandrasekher, senior VP and general manager of Intel's ultramobility group, told InformationWeek. In addition, Intel is building processors and chipsets for set-top boxes and digital video recorders. The platform, scheduled to ship this year, will use Menlow technology, but will be marketed under other names.
Intel's latest mobile processors are available on the company's dual-core Centrino platform for notebooks, which include the Intel 965 Express chipset. Optional with the platform are a third-party decoder for better performance in playing high-definition content in either HD DVD or Blu-ray format and support for 802.11n wireless networks. The latter is a Wi-Fi standard capable of streaming video.
Standard with the Centrino platform is Intel's latest Deep Power Down Technology that greatly reduces the power consumption of individual cores of a multi-core processor when they're not in use. In addition, the platform uses Intel's new SSE4 instruction set, which leads to faster processing of workloads, such as high-definition video encoding and photo manipulation.
One manufacturer expected to take advantage of Intel's latest chips is Apple, which industry watchers say is likely to introduce a new MacBook or other handheld computer at the Macworld Conference & Expo Jan. 14-18 in San Francisco.
Intel's latest chips for the mainstream desktop will include three Core 2 quad-core processors and four Core 2 dual-core products. The processors will feature a range of clock speeds, and up to 6 Mbytes of Level 2 cache. The dual-core products begin shipping this month, and the quad-core processors are expected later in the quarter.
Also shipping later this quarter are the four 45-nm Xeon processors for servers and workstations.
Intel started shipping 45-nm processors late last year, giving it a jump on rival Advanced Micro Devices. AMD is expected to deliver 45-nm products later this quarter. Code-named Shanghai, AMD (NYSE: AMD)'s quad-core microprocessor is expected to be a server product under the Opteron brand.

Coming Soon:
Penryn Notebooks
Notebook manufacturers, such as Fujitsu, will begin releasing new mobile Penryn-based laptops as early as next week. Fujitsu's first three Penryn models will be the 15.4-inch A6120, the 15.4-inch-E8410, and the 17-inch N6470. Fujitsu's senior director of mobile product marketing, Fujitsu Computer Systems Paul Moore says that Penryn's larger cache will result in faster performance.AMD announced earlier today that its new Puma platform, including the new Turion Ultra processor (codenamed Griffin), will become available in the second quarter of 2008. It will also have hardware support for DirectX 10.AMD will also launch ATI PowerXpress for the Puma platform, which allows users to switch between integrated and discrete graphics dynamically without rebooting their notebook.However, Intel beats AMD with the availability of a 45nm architecture. AMD doesn't expect its 45nm components until later this year.

CES News:Nothing new from Microsoft.

In an era when the vanguard of technology is creating smart devices for entertainment and communications, Bill Gates, the outgoing chairman of Microsoft, had little that was interesting or innovative to show off in his last annual keynote at CES in Las Vegas on Sunday.
The headline from the speech was a series of partnerships to bring some movies and television programming both to Xbox and to MSN. At best, this is more of the same. Xbox and MSN already offer video content. And the studios in the announcement — Disney, NBC Universal and MGM — already distribute their content digitally on other services. At best, this is a footnote completing a deal that was obvious. Apple, by contrast, regularly announces deals with Hollywood that offer new content and new terms for users (think 99-cent songs, and then music without copy protection.)
It's hard to remember a time when it seemed weird for Bill Gates to be speaking at the Consumer Electronics Show. But when he started doing keynotes in the early '90s, Microsoft was known as a software company, not a CES stalwart that made DVD players, TVs and car audio. Gates's taking center stage was then a sign that the PC was broadening its horizons into people's lifestyles, and Microsoft was positioning itself to lead the charge. Now, of course, after 11 appearances—eight on the eve of the show's formal opening—the Bill Gates keynote is a fixture here. Someone was quoted last week as saying that he's like the pope of the industry—which would make his regular Sunday-night presentation the benediction that blesses the orgy of commerce to follow. But this year's appearance marks an ending. Gates is leaving his full-time work at Microsoft this summer, and 2008 will be the last time he kicks off CES.

Not that I expected a weepy departure. Gates is unsentimental about stuff like this. For him a speech is all about the logistics of which Microsoft goodies to include, and the standard hope that the demos won't crash. This year's version was clearly in keeping with his tradition, a heaping helping of high-tech comfort food.

Over the years Gates keynotes have developed a reliable template. The speech is built around some overarching theme, usually some catch phrase that celebrates the wonderful things technology is going to do for us in the near future. In contrast to a Steve Jobs keynote, Gates's intent is not to unleash some unexpected new marvel on the world but to illustrate how Microsoft's direction in general is producing marvels. He does this by bringing on some of his employees to demo relatively new stuff. In recent years he has turned over a part of the talk to Robbie Bach, a Microsoft executive in charge of the parts of Microsoft that are most squarely in the consumer electronics realm (Xbox, Zune, video).
Amazingly, all the demos worked, so Gates will get to quit CES while he's ahead.
Gates did explicitly acknowledge that this was the last time he'd be keynoting, and that served to introduce his video, one of the strongest yet. It was a mockumentary of his upcoming last day at Microsoft. The continuing joke was that Gates will have unlimited time to kill. After playing with "Star Wars" figures, bulking up with Matthew McConaughey as a personal trainer and honing his "Guitar Hero" skills, Gates decides to branch out into a new career. This allows for a cavalcade of celebrities trying to gracefully let Gates know that he couldn't cut it in their world. Bono has to tell him that he couldn't replace the Edge in U2. Jay-Z breaks the news to Gates that he isn't a rocker. Spielberg turns him down for the movies. And both Hillary and Obama nix him as a running mate. The audience, many of whom had waited in line as long as four hours for the keynote, loved it.
Next year, no lines. But maybe CES officials can convince him to do another video.

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